The ideas of class, object, inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism are all connected with object oriented programming. The object-oriented programming paradigm is used by the majority of popular programming languages, including Java, C++, C#, Ruby, and others.
What is Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and how does it work?
Object-Oriented programming (OOP) is a programming style in which programmers specify the data type of a data structure as well as the operations that may be performed on it.
We'll discuss object-oriented programming ideas in Java because it's the most in-demand expertise. Declaring classes, generating objects from them, and interacting with these objects are all part of an object-based programme in Java.
What are OOP's (object-oriented programming) four essential principles/building blocks?
Inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism are the building elements of object-oriented programming. Let's learn more about each of them in the order listed below:
What are the advantages of using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)?
Productivity gains during software development
Software maintainability has improved.
Sprints of development that are shorter
Development costs are lower.
Software of higher grade
However, there are a few drawbacks to using OOP, including:
The learning curve is steep.
Increased programme size
Program execution will be slower.
It's not a one-size-fits-all approach.
Let's begin with the most fundamental Object Oriented Programming concept: inheritance.
Inheritance in Object-Oriented Programming
OOP refers to the design of computer programmes in which everything is an object that interacts with one another. Inheritance is a notion in which one class's properties can be inherited by another. It aids in the reuse of code and the establishment of a link between several classes.
Encapsulation in Object-Oriented Programming
Encapsulation is a technique for combining data and code into a single unit. It also refers to hiding your data in order to protect it from tampering. What exactly does this imply? The easiest way to comprehend encapsulation is to consider a medical capsule, which keeps the substance safe inside the capsule at all times. Similarly, encapsulation keeps a class's methods and variables secret and secure.
Object Oriented Programming: Abstraction
The trait of dealing with ideas rather than occurrences is referred to as abstraction. It essentially entails concealing the details and just displaying the most important information to the viewer. If you look at the graphic here, you can see that anytime we get a call, we have the choice of picking it up or rejecting it. However, there is a significant amount of code that runs in the background. The beauty of abstraction is that you don't have to know how a call is created inside.
Polymorphism in Object-Oriented Programming
Polymorphism is defined as the ability to take many different forms, where 'poly' means many and'morph' means forms. A variable, function, or object's capacity to take on numerous forms is known as polymorphism. Polymorphism, in other terms, allows you to declare a single interface or function and have several implementations.
Is a term used in Java to describe the process of resolving a call to an overridden method at runtime rather than at compile time. In this case, a reference variable is utilised to invoke a superclass's overridden method during runtime. Run-time polymorphism is an example of method overriding.
Compile time polymorphism
Is a term used in Java to describe the process of resolving a call to an overloaded method at compile time rather than at run time. Compile time polymorphism is exemplified via method overloading. Method overloading is a feature that allows a class to have many methods with the same name but various parameters supplied to them.
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